Kalendarz jest umownie przyjętą jednostką czasu oraz sposobem jego pomiaru i rozpowszechniania. W pomiarach czasu  kalendarz służy do wyznaczania daty, roku, miesiąca oraz dnia, natomiast zegar służy do mierzenia upływu czasu w godzinach, minutach i sekundach. Nazwa pochodzi od rzymskiego słowa „kalendy” (po łacinie calendae) bądź według innych źródeł od łacińskiego „callendarium” – pierwszego dnia miesiąca. (more…)


By: Ludmiła Matusik

Vienna – the largest city in Austria located on the Danube River. A large administrative, industrial, tourist, academic and cultural hub of international importance. Founded around 500 BC in the process of Celtic expansion, it became a frontier Roman outpost in 15 BC. In 1221, being one of the most important locations of the Holy Roman Empire, it was granted city rights. After the dissolution of this Empire in 1806, the city became the capital of the Austrian Empire and then, until 1918, of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. (more…)


                                                      By: Liana Balicka

The subject of religion is vast and its presence has long occupied an important place in culture and politics and has played a significant role in the development of civilisation. The oldest traces of religion can be found as far back as prehistoric times in the form of cave drawings and burials. According to recent research, the origins of religion date back to Neanderthal times, and it is assumed that its original form was animism, according to which non-human beings such as plants, animals or inanimate objects have a soul. Information on religion is also provided by written works, which began to appear around 4 000 BC. What emerges from them are pictures of established religions, the development of which was influenced by various ancient civilisations. With the help of religion, man tried to comprehend the world and the phenomena around him, such as thunderbolts, death or day and night cycle. (more…)


                                                     By: Liana Balicka

The process of ageing of the population brought about by the fall in the number of births compared   to the number of deaths is the phenomenon of demographic decline. What are its causes and consequences? How to explain why the fertility rate is changing, what factors contribute to the birth rate falling or rising, how to understand the connection between the birth rate and the number of women of childbearing age and their fertility? Finally, how will these factors evolve in the future? (more…)


                                               By: Liana Balicka

Ecology – is the science of the structure and functioning of nature, which studies the interrelationships between organisms, and between organisms and their organic and inorganic environment, which for this purpose uses knowledge of zoology, botany, genetics, ethology, physiology, evolutionism, geochemistry and biogeography. Ecology, broadly speaking, is the science of order and disorder in the natural world and of the consequences resulting from this order and disorder for the existence of the biosphere and the human being.
The concept of ecology (from Greek: οἶκος, “house” and -λογία, “study of”) was first introduced in 1869 by the German evolutionist, naturalist, philosopher and zoologist Ernst Haeckel.   At that time, science had not yet developed sufficiently to create a single branch of ecology common to animals, plants, microorganisms and inanimate nature, and Haeckel’s definition of ecology as a whole based on the interrelations and interactions between all the factors mentioned above was a milestone in the development of science.
The intensive development of modern ecology as a science dates back to the first half of the 20th century. The work of many scientists has resulted in the merging of different research topics on the natural environment and contributed to the development of ecology as an independent discipline, with individual branches being distinguished on the basis of their research subjects, methodology or biological levels of organisation of living things. There are currently many definitions of ecology, which is due to the fact that it is classified as an interdisciplinary science drawing on knowledge ranging from botany, zoology, biogeography, ethology, genetics, evolutionism to a number of other disciplines. There is no single ecology – it is divided into subdivisions which can be differentiated according to problem analysis or research methodology. There are two main branches in ecology – autoecology and synecology. The domain of ecology includes such phenomena and processes occurring within ecological systems as biocenosis, ecosystem, biome and biosphere, physiological and ecological population.
The word ECOLOGY has gained new qualities with time, as it deals with various topics depending on the subject matter, has acquired many progressive (modern) meanings and has become a tool used to achieve social and political goals. It seems that the prefix ‘eco-‘ is fashionable and can evoke many different associations, but more and more people are aware that the conscious use of the planet’s resources is an obligation. The awareness in this regard is growing and people care about environmental protection and eco-education. Modern man feels responsible and wants to protect the environment for health reasons and out of concern for future generations. The 21st century is often referred to as the ecological century because public awareness of ecology has increased significantly over the last decade. However, the planet is still struggling with global problems such as air pollution, acid rain, soil degradation, the ozone hole and man-made threats. The natural environment continues to be polluted and nature’s wealth destroyed. Overexploitation of natural resources has led to their sharp reduction. The increasing demand for wood as a building and heating material has resulted in the loss of forested areas, the air is polluted by industrial plants whose toxic gas emissions exceed the norm many times over, and more and more toxic substances from industrial plants find their way into water reservoirs. Our society (a human being) suffers from a shortage of drinking water. Deforestation and burning of fossil fuels are the main factors of greenhouse gas emissions influencing climate change on Earth. Among other things, rising temperatures lead to flooding, heat waves, ecological and climatic disasters, melting glaciers and rising sea levels. Moreover, the environment is being affected by the demographic explosion which brings about environmental damage.  Each of these problems represents the disastrous consequences of human impact on the environment. The harmony between man and nature has been disrupted.
It is therefore appropriate to quote a statement which, although much time has passed, is still relevant and correctly represents the relationship between man and nature:   “Nature without man can survive, but man without nature will perish”  (Confucius)

The planet is becoming increasingly polluted, and the choices people make have a decisive influence on its state and condition. Thanks to education and growing awareness related to environmental protection, pro-environmental actions are being taken in the form of implementation of various remedial plans and relevant legislation.  Knowledge of the way nature works, presentation of evidence of the interdependence between the natural and human worlds, and understanding of ecological systems will allow our society to anticipate the effects of human impact on the natural environment. Apart from introducing modern production technologies, first and foremost we should strive to minimise the amount of waste that poisons the surrounding environment. It is obvious that one or two people will not change the planet if large corporations do not actively participate in pro-ecological activities. While everyone can do their part to help protect the environment, the rate at which climate change occurs depends on the population as a whole. Ecology should enter the life of every conscious person who wants to protect our planet from degradation. Even small changes will make a difference if more and more people start applying them. Today, the majority of society understands ecology as a healthy approach to life and to the environment, and it is associated with limiting the use of plastic, waste segregation, reducing emissions – in other words, with environmental protection which manifests itself through specific behaviours.
More and more people are choosing to live in an ecological way and, as a result, the chances for future generations to live in a friendly environment are growing. Clean air, closeness to nature, unpolluted food and soil that ecology offers and, moreover, the awareness that life in a friendly environment is much more beautiful and longer proves that being eco-friendly is important not only for the sake of Earth, plants and animals, but also for all of us. Living green simply pays off!


                                                By: Liana Balicka

Ayurveda is a combination of a healing system and Eastern philosophy. It takes its origins from ancient India and combines medical and philosophical knowledge. Although it has its roots in India, it is widely practised in most Asian countries. It is officially recognised by the World Health Organisation – WHO, which arouses more and more interest in Europe and America.  The most important pillars of Ayurveda are holistic approaches to man being an inseparable link of body, mind and soul. The main idea of Ayurveda, namely the fact that the body and soul are united, just like the human being and the surrounding universe, has proved useful in today’s world. The ancient Indian art of healing seeks to maintain the balance and integrity of the entire system that links the human body with its environment, involves every aspect of human life, with a focus on preventing illness from occurring and once it does occur, on eliminating the source rather than the symptoms, as well as on maintaining balance at every level of existence.

Ayurvedic medicine is based on natural healing methods, using herbal medicine, body treatments aimed at removing physical and mental toxins, regeneration of the body, thus ensuring a return to full health. Not only does it cure without the use of chemical drugs or invasive procedures, but it also teaches how to live in harmony with the environment, with nature, with the world and other people, it helps to understand one’s own body, to observe the signals the human body sends out. In such circumstances, according to the philosophy of Ayurveda, prevention plays a significant role, which includes physical activity, proper nutrition and correct interpersonal relations.

An inseparable and important part of the health processes is the use of an appropriate diet, taking into account the body type (Prakriti) as well as the existing imbalance (Vikriti). Three Doshas circulating in the body through their combined effect determine Prakriti, the psycho-physical constitution. Prakriti is a unique set of properties corresponding to the dominant Dosha. Prakriti from the moment of conception until the end of life remains unchanged. Under the influence of external factors, however, it can be disrupted, producing a state called Vikriti. What and how a person eats plays an important role in the philosophy of Ayurveda. Although this diet does not exclude the consumption of specific foods, it strongly recommends light and unprocessed products of plant origin. The quality of the meals prepared and the ritual of eating them is important. Due to the fact that the concept of Ayurvedic medicine is based on the inseparable connection between man and the universe, the science of Ayurveda promotes a certain idea – the theory that it is the cycles of nature that determine the most beneficial rhythm of life for man, as well as provide the most necessary nutrients at any time of the year.  Proper education of self-awareness in this regard allows to achieve and maintain the balance of Prakriti. According to Ayurvedic science, everything in the universe is interconnected and interdependent, and consists of the five elements existing in different proportions. These are – Air, Fire, Water, Earth and Space. The human body is composed of five elements which combined in different proportions form energies called Doshas. Three Doshas – Vata, Pitta, Kapha – are their manifestation and possess their properties. Vata – energy with a predominance of Space and Air; it is dry, mobile, rough, light and cold. Pitta – the most emotional and fiery energy; it is moist, light and hot. Kapha – describes energy with a dominant role of Water and Earth; it is moist, cold, heavy, static, bonding. Doshas ‘circulate’ throughout the body, governing bodily functions as well as creating and managing the body and mind. It is believed that keeping all three Doshas in natural proportions brings man into a state of balance, which is close to health and well-being. Every person has all these energies, one of which is dominant, the second is visible and the third is the least present. Such a pattern of energies is called Prakriti. The psycho-physical constitution (Prakriti) – the formation of one’s Doshas – is a natural state which does not change, is individual and determines one’s psycho-physical balance. Any disturbance of this state leads to imbalance, a change in physical and emotional condition, the so-called Vikriti.

According to Ayurvedic theory, prevention, which includes physical activity, proper nutrition and good interpersonal relations, has great potential. It is of no small importance to maintain the balance between the various Doshas along with an increased awareness of one’s own body and preventive measures, rather than focusing on feeling unwell. In many cases, a change of attitude towards ailments or life problems is considered to be the most effective way of treatment and health recovery, believing that a person’s physical state is inextricably entwined with his/her mental state. Ayurveda does not refer only to the medical field, but concerns all levels of human activity. The overall health process involves a system of interrelated elements, such as physical exercise, the practice of yoga and pranayama (breathing exercises), in addition to working on more subtle levels – the emotions and the mind.

Although Ayurveda, as a domain of natural and non-conventional medicine, indeed emphasises primarily the psychological state and spiritual issues of a person, it also recognises surgical intervention as an effective means of treatment. The potential of Ayurvedic medicine is combined with modern medical diagnostics which forms the basis for gaining knowledge about diseases in their initial stages of development. Ayurveda is a way of life that makes one awa re of how to live, using the inner power and energetic potential of the human body, and paying attention to spiritual development and raising awareness. Ayurveda integrates various scientific achievements for the benefit of mankind!


                                                  By: Wiktoria Kępczyńska

‘A new reality’ – that’s what we call living with a new, invisible enemy called the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. It emerged at the end of 2019, and by early January 2020 the new infectious agent was identified. Since then, the world has came to a standstill, and social life has been turned upside down. For many people, the pandemic has proved to be the most stressful time of their lives. The necessary social distance and isolation have translated into the transfer of work, education, cultural events and social gatherings to virtual space. The virtual world has provided not only entertainment and the chance to watch films or TV series online but also contact with loved ones using instant messaging and social networks. The concept of planning and shopping with the help of online portals and cashless payments has taken hold and become an everyday experience. The fear of being infected has contributed to an increase in online shopping of groceries as well as card payments and, consequently, to the abandonment of use of cash. More attention is being paid to the safety of packaging and more domestic products are being purchased. (more…)


                                              By: Liana Balicka

The history of cosmetology dates back to ancient times. The name derives from the Greek words kosmetes – beauty servant and kosmetikos – beautifying. Cosmetology is connected with the sanitary care of human life, treatment and care of the skin. Its aim is to increase by means of cosmetic and non-invasive methods – cosmetics, beauty treatments, dietary guidelines – the physical attractiveness of the face and the whole human body.

The sphere of cosmetology includes, among others, prevention aimed at delaying the external signs of the ageing process, prevention of skin defects, treatments related to making oneself beautiful, correction of defects in external appearance, treatment issues related to skin lesions, obesity problems, etc. (more…)


By: Wiktoria Kępczyńska

Some scientists warn against letting the genie of destruction out of the bottle. They are being joined by futurologists concerned about the emergence of artificial intelligence, possibly more powerful than human intelligence and potentially hostile to us.

Have the curiosity and predictions of scientists in this field already penetrated the collective consciousness of humanity? Probably not yet, since the world we know from literature and science fiction films still seems to be only the world of tomorrow. However, this ‘tomorrow’ may be closer than we think, as it is moving forward at a pace unrecognisable to humans.

It is hard to believe that there are machines in the modern world that can pretend to be humans so perfectly that people who talk to them are unable to believe that they are actually intelligent machines. Serious scientific bodies discuss and exchange views about encountering an alien, unearthly civilisation, and some questions remain unanswered. But since we consider ourselves to be intelligent creatures who use their brains to solve all kinds of tasks, we believe that we can solve this problem as well. But human mind has a problem with identifying intelligent entities, and this is because we do not yet know what this so-called intelligence actually is or what exactly its nature is. The thinking process is also difficult to define. Nowadays, we are living in an era in which an as-yet not completely defined entity has appeared, but which has already been labelled artificial intelligence. The question of whether this entity is humanity’s dedicated friend or mortal enemy is legitimate, insofar as we may not be keeping up with its development. And if this is indeed the case, will we be able to establish a meaningful dialogue with artificial intelligence? That is the question! After all, when it comes to the game of chess, machines have already been able to outplay the best humans in this intellectual discipline for years.

Is the intelligence of these thinking machines the same as ours? If we do not quickly decide to thoroughly understand this entity, we will undoubtedly lose the game against it. The functioning of human intelligence is determined by biology, chemistry, brain structure and the history of the human species. But isn’t machine intelligence, which seems to have already been born, different from human intelligence to such an extent that we surmise its existence thanks to symptoms, such as inexplicable anomalies in functioning of computers with gigantic computing power? These anomalies do not, admittedly, prejudge the existence of this already independent entity, but to ignore such a probability would be a confirmation of human imperfection resulting from anthropocentric view of the world in which we live.

The appearance on Earth of advanced machine intelligence, the existence of which we presume, should probably be a sufficient reason to intensify scientific research on the human mind; perhaps the 10% of nerve cells out of the approximately 3 billion that we possess are not enough to stand up to the entity that, after escaping from Pandora’s box, stimulates our curiosity, but also causes justified anxiety about the development of Polish science, which the state is spending more and more money on. The main sectors providing funds for scientific research and development work are the business sector and the government sector. Beneficial changes in this regard can also be seen in the steadily improving data on the number of entities and personnel involved in R&D activities.